**Excavation** means work involving the removal of soil or sand or rock from earth, basically two types of excavation methods used in construction

**1.Handmade excavation** – The Soil or sand or rock is excavating by Humans.

**2. Machinery made excavation** -The Soil or sand or rock is excavating by machineries.

#### Volume of Excavation is,

__For Example__**:-**

** Size of Footing**Length (L) – 3.00 m,

Width (B) – 2.50 m,

Thickness /Depth (D) -0.75 m

** Size of Column **Length (L) – 0.50 m

Width (B) – 0.50 m

Thickness /Depth (D) – 3.00 m

** Size of PCC** Length (L) – 3.20 m,

Width (B) – 2.70 m,

Thickness /Depth (D) -0.10 m

__So, Volume of Excavation is__

__Formula __= (Length of PCC + Working Space) X (Width of PCC + Working Space) X (Height of PCC + Height of Footing + Height of Column)

__So, Volume of Excavation is__

__Formula__= (Length of PCC + Working Space) X (Width of PCC + Working Space) X (Height of PCC + Height of Footing + Height of Column)**What is working space and description of working space given below this article**

**Volume of Excavation = (3.20 +0.6+0.6) X (2.70+0.6+0.6) X (0.1+0.75+3.0)**

**Total Volume of Excavation = 66.07 m**³

**What is Working Space: – **Working space is the additional space provided between both edges of the excavation of the footing, which is used for the labor movement, using machinery, removing shuttering boards, pouring of concrete, etc.

Working spaces are considered depending on structures varying between shallow and deep foundations.

**Shallow Foundation: – **if the depth of excavation is less than 0.6m which is called the shallow foundation, for this condition working space is not required.

**Deep Foundation: –** if the depth of excavation is up to 3.0m or above which is called a deep foundation.

If the depth of the deep foundation is up to 3.0 m working space provides 600mm of all the four sides of the footings.

If the depth of the deep foundation is more than 3.0 m working space to be provided 600+50mm (for every 1 meter) shall be added on all four sides of the footing edge.

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It was fascinating to know that working space is used for the labor movement. My friend told me that their project requires excavation. I think it’s best to hire an expert in excavation to ensure quality work.

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